Database Management Basics

Database management is a method of coordinating the information that a company needs to run its business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to applications and users and modifying it as needed and monitoring changes to the data and preventing it from becoming damaged by unexpected failure. It is an element of a company’s overall informational infrastructure which aids in decision making, corporate growth and compliance with laws such as the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They developed into information management systems (IMS) which allowed massive amounts of data to be stored and retrieved for a range of purposes. From calculating inventory to supporting complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.

A database is a collection of tables that arrange data according to the specific scheme, for example one-to many relationships. It utilizes primary key to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a set of attributes, or fields, that represent facts about data entities. Relational models, invented by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM and IBM, are the most popular database type today. This model is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It also makes it simpler to update data without the need to change several databases.

Most DBMSs can support multiple types of databases by providing different internal and external levels of organization. The internal level is concerned with costs, scalability and other operational issues like the physical layout of the database. The external level is how the database appears in user interfaces and other applications. It could include a mix of different external views (based on the different data models) and could also include virtual tables that are created from data that is generic to enhance performance.

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