Therefore, we were unable to perform a subgroup analysis based on the sex of participants. Dumont 2010, Karatzi 2013, Kawano 1992, and Williams 2004 reported reasons for participant withdrawal and excluded their data from the final analysis. Data were balanced across groups, hence missing data did not affect the final results. It is important to note that 2 out of 19 studies were single‐blinded (Agewall 2000; Karatzi 2013). Personnel were blinded instead of participants in Karatzi 2013, and neither personnel nor participants were blinded in Agewall 2000, so we assessed these studies as having high risk of bias. We conducted a standard Chi² test through Review Manager Software 5.3 to test for heterogeneity (Review Manager (RevMan)).
Some evidence suggests that reducing alcohol intake in heavy drinkers could help reduce BP, but much more research is required to validate these observations. We publish material that is researched, cited, edited and reviewed by licensed medical professionals. The information we provide is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.
S2 File. Captions for data available.
To be eligible a participant must have reported consumption of an average of at least 21 drinks per week in the most recent 6 months. Conversely, moderate drinking has been repeatedly demonstrated to have potential benefits for patients with diabetes and abnormal lipoprotein profiles. At the same time, some studies suggest that stopping or reducing alcohol intake produces better outcomes for those with high blood pressure or CVD. Alcohol withdrawal reverses the adverse impact of alcohol on endothelial function, with rapid normalization of the BP.
- This review included only short‐term randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of alcohol on blood pressure and heart rate.
- It doesn’t have to be a high-impact activity—walking, cycling, yoga, or even chores around the house can help control your blood pressure.
- We believe that inclusion of those studies will provide useful information about the dose‐related magnitude and time‐course effect of alcohol on blood pressure in people with both normal and elevated blood pressure.
- An electronic balance was used, with a capacity of 200 kg and a precision of 50g.
- The difference in the proportion of participants reporting successfully reducing alcohol intake to less than 50% of their baseline intake was less than had been estimated to produce a sufficient difference in alcohol intake and BP for this sample size.
In addition, this is part of a large study with rigorous control on data collection and management [24,25,40]. Although there was no association between alcohol intake and BP in woman with moderate consumption, a greater difference was observed when the consumption was excessive. In this randomized clinical trial in nondependent moderate to heavy drinkers the reduction in BP with an intervention to lower alcohol intake was not significantly different from the BP change in a control group. The BP differences and the development or recurrence of hypertension are generally in the hypothesized direction, but they do not achieve statistical significance. The goal of the intervention was to reduce alcohol intake to the lesser of 14 drinks per week or 50% of the participant’s own baseline alcohol intake level. The intervention was administered by women from diverse disciplines (nursing, psychology, and social work) and with diverse educational and career histories, who were centrally trained in special intervention techniques.
Ziauddeen 2013 published data only
There is a significant amount of data to show that drinking large quantities of alcohol, whether it is a spirits, beer, or wine, can increase the risk of developing hypertension. Studies have shown a link between alcohol and hypertension, or high blood pressure. Hypertension occurs when the pressure of blood against the artery walls becomes higher than normal. There is evidence that reducing alcohol intake can help lower blood pressure in those suffering from hypertension and even prevent its development. Take a look at the numbers and you’ll find that only moderate drinkers have less cardiovascular disease.
The results found were similar to those found in the present study, with a small reduction in power due to the sample size, mainly in the most frequent consumption categories. Prevention and reduction of excessive use of alcohol represents damages to society in general. In turn, arterial hypertension is the main attributable risk factor premature life lost years and disability.
For healthy adults, that means up to one drink a day for women and up to two drinks a day for men. Heavy alcohol users who cut back to moderate drinking can lower their top number in a blood pressure reading (systolic pressure) by about 5.5 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) and their bottom number (diastolic pressure) by about 4 mm Hg. According to the published protocol, we intended to include only double‐blind RCTs in this review. Because higher doses of alcohol exert specific pharmacological effects on drinkers, we had a few double‐blind RCTs after the first screening. Considering the difficulty of masking in these types of studies, we decided to also include single‐blind and open‐label studies in the review.
Rada 2018 published data only
One study found that three glasses of nonalcoholic red wine a day over a month led to a significant drop in blood pressure in men with heart disease risk factors. But men who drank red wine with alcohol, or 3 ounces of gin, had no change in their blood pressure. Researchers think that the alcohol in the wine weakens any antioxidant benefit to blood pressure.
In Brazil, the prevalence of hypertension is high [4–7] giving a significant contribution to the overall cardiovascular risk. Some risk factors, such as smoking, have steadily decreased in recent decades  while others have increased such as obesity  and alcohol consumption . In addition regular alcohol consumption is occurring increasingly earlier in the life , thus also providing an increase in general morbidity and mortality . The Alcohol Dependence Scale12 was self-administered at the first screening visit to exclude candidates who evidenced manifestations of alcohol dependency, since it was considered unethical to withhold some form of intervention from dependent drinkers. The primary alcohol eligibility criterion was based on a structured interview instrument (Lifetime Drinking History13) administered at the second screening visit.
Retterstol 2005 published data only
The bottom line, Klatsky says, is you can’t make a drinking rule that applies broadly for people with high blood pressure. You need to determine your lifestyle and genetic risk factors first, says Arthur Klatsky, MD, an investigator for Kaiser Permanente’s research eco sober house complaints division and formerly its chief of cardiology in Oakland, CA. With all the focus on carbs, it’s easy to forget that alcohol also has calories. Given that drinking can make you lose track of what you’re eating, calories (and pounds) can add up quickly.
Ratings of the certainty of evidence ranged from moderate to low in this review, which suggests that the effect estimates of alcohol might be slightly different than the true effects. For high doses of alcohol, we found moderate‐certainty evidence showing a decrease in SBP and low‐certainty evidence suggesting a decrease in DBP within the first six hours and 7 to 12 hours after consumption. Moderate‐certainty evidence shows that SBP and DBP rise between 13 and 24 hours after alcohol ingestion. Much of the current literature on alcohol does not mention the hypotensive effect of alcohol or the magnitude of change in BP or HR after alcohol consumption. This review will be useful for social and regular drinkers to appreciate the risks of low blood pressure within the first 12 hours after drinking.
A recent study shows the least mortality at 100 g/week or less of alcohol, with a dose-dependent relationship between alcohol and stroke, IHD, fatal hypertensive disease, heart failure, and fatal aortic aneurysm. Notably, the heart attack risk was in inverse relation to alcohol consumption levels. Second, lack of representation of the female population was notable in the included studies. Only four studies included almost equal numbers of male and female participants (Buckman 2015; Foppa 2002; Maufrais 2017; Zeichner 1985).
- When trials compared more than one dose of alcohol, we handled each comparison separately.
- Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a very common condition worldwide.
- We noted some overlap of data points in some funnel plots, indicating that some of the included studies were of similar size.
- Because the alcohol content in one standard drink varies among different countries (ranging from 8 g to 14 g), we chose the Canadian standard for an alcoholic beverage, which is 14 g of pure alcohol (CCSA).
- Individuals who do not experience withdrawal symptoms will likely see the positive effects of giving up alcohol shortly after doing so.
The behavioral intervention used in PATHS failed to produce the anticipated reduction in BP. However, beverage substitution may not be a satisfactory method to use over an extended period. The results from PATHS are probably a more realistic expectation for sustained reduction in alcohol intake among nondependent moderate drinkers in a natural setting. There is a suggestion that reduction of alcohol intake in the control group in PATHS attenuated the difference in intake between the 2 groups. The difference in the proportion of participants reporting successfully reducing alcohol intake to less than 50% of their baseline intake was less than had been estimated to produce a sufficient difference in alcohol intake and BP for this sample size. The projection was 60% for the intervention group and 20% for the control group at 6 months, while levels of 44% and 23%, respectively, were achieved.
Systolic pressure is the pressure within the arteries of the heart when the heart contracts, and diastolic pressure refers to the lowest pressure in the arteries when the heart is relaxing between contractions. If cutting back on alcohol is hard for you to do on your own, ask your health care professional about getting help. Sign up for free and stay up to date on research advancements, health tips, current https://sober-house.org/ health topics, and expertise on managing health. A drink is 12 ounces (355 milliliters) of beer, 5 ounces (148 milliliters) of wine or 1.5 ounces (44 milliliters) of 80-proof distilled spirits. After de‐duplication and screening of titles and abstracts, we were left with 482 citations for further assessment. We retrieved full‐text articles for those citations and included 32 studies (Figure 1).
Polyphenols may help with health issues related to digestion, heart problems and diabetes, and eating them may reduce people’s risk of hypertension. However, one study showed that one drink of alcohol was capable of lowering blood pressure, regardless of whether it was red wine or another type of alcohol, meaning that any type of alcoholic drink can positively impact a person’s blood pressure. We created a funnel plot using the mean difference (MD) from studies reporting effects of medium doses and high doses of alcohol on SBP, DBP, MAP, and HR against standard error (SE) of the MD to check for the existence of publication bias. Visual inspection of funnel plots shows that the effect estimate is equally distributed around the mean in Figure 4, Figure 5, Figure 6.
There was little evidence that changes in weight, sodium or potassium intake, other dietary factors, or physical activity confounded the effect of a change in alcohol intake on BP, although there were small decreases in body weight and saturated fat intake. This 6-reading average was also used as the baseline BP for randomized participants. Hypertension is rising in prevalence due to the rising mean age of the population as well as due to the increased prevalence of poor dietary patterns and other lifestyle factors. Therefore, potential interventions could target weight loss, a sedentary lifestyle, appropriate sodium/potassium intake changes, smoking, and excessive alcohol intake.